Fiction of science

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Science in Nepal

Nepal is considered as one of the developing country of the world.Different infrastures are being developed & some are still to be developed.Among them science is also the one.Science has different advantages as well as disadvantages.If it is used wisely it can give us all the comforts but if misused can cause  a disater.Similar is the casse in nepal too.If nepal is able to use science in different fields properly and not being missued it is sure that nepal will be developed as other different countries in the world


Herbarium is a book in which different herbs are preserved along with original structures & all the necessary information & their classification.

How to make a Herbarium
1.First of all collect different species of plants from different places.
2.Then the plants which consist of water in their body are to be made dry by special process ie by putting them inside the newspaper and put them beneath the matress in the bed so that the water squeeze out.The newspaper should be changed in between every 2 days.
3.The same procedure is repeted for a month.
4.If the plants are Xerophytic they should be kept in a special solution & some should be dried up.
5.After a month they are to be pasted in a herbarium sheet with all their parts exposed and nothing should be ruptured.
6.The leaves should be shown both dorsally & ventrically.
7.Lastly classfication should be made

Blood groups

 but The membrane of human blood cells contain a variety of blood group antigens which are also called agglutinogens.The most important &bast known of these are A&B antigen but there are many more.
There are 4 main blood groups A,B,AB&O.Type A individual develops Anti B antibodies,Type O individuals develops both and Type AB individual develops neither.When the plasma of A type individual is mixed with type B red cell,The anti B antibodies causes the type B red cell to clump.
Blood typing is performed by mixing an individual's RBC with anti sera & seeing whether agglutination occurs.
Blood transfusion are frequently carried out in hospital wards but we should never give blood to the patient who has agglutinins against the agglutinogen of the doner.To make sure that the blood of patient doesn't cause agglutination a cross match must be done before transfusion

Monday, February 14, 2011

Blood Pressure

blood pressure may be defined as the pressure or force which the blood exerts on the blood vessels.As there is some delay in the movement ,the blood through the arteriolar & capillary system,the blood pressure in the artiies is always higher than that in veins.

The arterial blood pressure is the result of the discharge of blood from the left ventricle into already full aorta.When the left ventricle contracts and pushes blood into the aorta, the pressure produced is k/a systolic blood pressure which is found to be 120 mm Hg  or 16Kpa in a normal adult.

When complete cardiac diastole occurs & the heart is resting with no ejection of blood,the pressure within the blood vessel is termed as diastolic blood pressure which is found to be 80 mm Hg or 11Kpa in a normal adult.

The pressure varies according to the time of day,the posture,sex & age of the individual.During bed rest & night the pressure tends to be lower. It increases with age.The blood pressure is measured by the use of a sphygmomanometer & usually expressed in the following manner
BP=120/80 mm Hg



The pulse is described as a wave of distenction and elongation felt in an artery wall due to contraction of the left ventrical forcing about 40 to 80 ml of blood into the already full aorta.When the aorta is distended the  wave passes along the walls of the arties and can be felt at any point where an artery can be pressed gently against the bone.The number of pulse beat/min varies considerabley in different people in the same person at different time.An average pulse is 60-80 beats/min in a normal adult.

Some information may be obtained by taking the pulse
1.the rate at which the heart is beating
2.the rythm with which the heart beats i.e. the length of time between beats should be same
3.The volume & strength of the beat
4.the tension


Electrocardiogram is a tool for evaluating the electrical impluses which go through the muscular tissue of the heart.The electrical impluses can be detected at the body surface by attaching small metal plates at  different sites of the body  that measures the impluses of different parts of heart.When muscle contracts there is a change in the electrical potential across the membrane of muscle fibers that change in electrical potential is traced on the graph paper k/a ECG.
the normal ECG tracing shows 5 waves named P,Q,R,S&T.
The P wave is caused by the impulse of artia contraction & this is called artial depolarization.
The Q,R & S waves indicate the spread of the impluse and the contraction of the ventricular muscle .this is called ventricular depolarization.
The T wave represents the time of relaxation of the heart that is called repolarization

By examining the pattern & time of wave intervalbetween cycle & different parts of cycle the physician obtains valueable information about disease condition.

Inheritance of A &B antigens

The A & B antigens are a mendelians allelomorphs A & B being dominants.For eg An individual with type B blood may have inherited a B antigen from each parent or a B antigen from one parent &O from another,thus an individual whose phenotype isB may have the genotype BB(homozygous)or BO (heterozygous)
When the blood types of patients are known the possible genotype of their children can be stated .When both parents are type B,they will have children with genotype BB (B antigen from both parents) BO (B antigen from one parent & O from the Other heterozygous) or OO (O antigen from both parents being heterozygous.